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The absorption spectra exhibit single- or twin-peak structures which are determined by quantum modes, LL energy spectra and Fermion distribution. There exist extra single peaks because of LL anti-crossings. The main characteristics of LL wavefunctions and energy spectra and the Fermi-Dirac function are responsible for the configuration-enriched magneto-optical spectra. A platform for efficient genotyping in Musa using microsatellite markers.

Background and aims Bananas and plantains Musa spp. The rich genetic diversity of this crop is, however, endangered by diseases, adverse environmental conditions and changed farming practices, and the need for its characterization and preservation is urgent.

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With the aim of providing a simple and robust approach for molecular characterization of Musa species, we developed an optimized genotyping platform using 19 published simple sequence repeat markers. Methodology The genotyping system is based on 19 microsatellite loci, which are scored using fluorescently labelled primers and high-throughput capillary electrophoresis separation with high resolution.

This genotyping platform was tested and optimized on a set of 70 diploid and 38 triploid banana accessions. Principal results The marker set used in this study provided enough polymorphism to discriminate between individual species, subspecies and subgroups of all accessions of Musa. Likewise, the capability of identifying duplicate samples was confirmed.

see Based on the results of a blind test, the genotyping system was confirmed to be suitable for characterization of unknown accessions. Conclusions Here we report on the first complex and standardized platform for molecular characterization of Musa germplasm that is ready to use for the wider Musa research and breeding community.

We believe that this genotyping system offers a versatile tool that can accommodate all possible requirements for characterizing Musa diversity, and is economical for samples ranging from one to many accessions. Springs are the gifts of nature on the earth as they contribute about eighty essential nutrients that are involved in more than enzymatic processes in the human body.

European balneologists have recommended spring mineral waters for different therapeutic applications. In the present investigation, Aab - e- Shifa Punjab Pakistan spring water was analyzed due to its therapeutic behavior in the healing of various skin diseases via atomic absorption spectroscopy AAS. It was found that besides other important minerals Ca, Mg, K, and Na , the spring water contains the most significant antioxidant, i.

Other trace elements Cr, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe, and Cu were also found to be present in the spring water under the permissible limits of various national and international organizations. Assessment of glycemic potential of Musa paradisiaca stem juice. Whereas, in sub diabetic rats the same dose produces a rise of These results were unexpected and important to report as other species of Musa like Musa sapientum has been reported for its hypoglycemic effect. Bioactivity studies on Musa seminifera Lour. Saha, Sanjib; Shilpi, Jamil A. Background: Musa seminifera Lour is a tree-like perennial herb that has been used in folk medicine in Bangladesh to heal a number of ailments.

Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic activities, and general toxicity of the ethanol extract of the roots. Materials and Methods: The extract was assessed for free-radical-scavenging activity by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH assay, total phenolic content TPC by the Folin Ciocalteu reagent, antioxidant activity by the ferric reducing power assay, analgesic activity by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, antidiarrheal activity by the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, anthelmintic activity on Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus, and general toxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay.

Results: The extract showed free-radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 value of TPC was It showed concentration-dependent reducing power, and displayed The extract also significantly raised the pain threshold at the above-mentioned dose levels. In vivo antidiarrheal property was substantiated by significant prolongation of latent period and decrease in total number of stools compared with the control. The LC50 against brine shrimp nauplii was The extract exhibited dose-dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the helminths.

Conclusion: The above results demonstrated that the plant possesses notable bioactivities and somewhat supports its use in folk medicine.

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Pharmacological evaluation of Musa seminifera Lour. To study potential antioxidant, analgesic, antidiarrheal, and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of Musa seminifera Lour. In vitro antioxidant activity was studied in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH radical-scavenging assay. Phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent.

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Reducing ability was evaluated by ferric reducing power assay. Peripherally and centrally acting analgesic activity was studied in three different in vivo models, namely, acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test, and tail-flick test in Swiss albino mice. In vivo antidiarrheal activity was evaluated in castor oil- and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea in mice.

Gastrointestinal motility test was also carried out in mice. Antibacterial activity was assessed by disk diffusion assay against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

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Acute toxicity test was conducted to assess the safe doses of the extract. Phenolic content was found to be Reducing power was in a concentration-dependent manner, and strongly comparable with the standard ascorbic acid. The extract demonstrated significant inhibition of writhing in acetic acid-induced writhing test at both dose levels P Amending storage vessel and media improves transfer interval of Musa spp. Musa spp. Accessions maintained in vitro require routine sub-culturing as nutrient medium is lost due to Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index GI of the three banana cultivars were determined.

Furthermore, MAR 1. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. To investigate different Musa sp. The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration were determined by agar well diffusion method.

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Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity was determined. All the Musa sp.

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Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species. The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi-drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens.

Further, an extensive study is needed to identify the bioactive compounds, mode of action and toxic effect in vivo of Musa sp. Objective To investigate different Musa sp. Methods The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Results All the Musa sp. Conclusions The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi-drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens.

The production of bananas is threatened by rapid spreading of various diseases and adverse environmental conditions. The preservation and characterization of banana diversity is essential for the purposes of crop improvement. The world's largest banana germplasm collection maintained at the Bioversity International Transit Centre ITC in Belgium is continuously expanded by new accessions of edible cultivars and wild species. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the accessions is necessary for efficient management of the collection and utilization of banana diversity.

The accessions were genotyped using a set of 19 microsatellite markers to establish their relationships with the remaining accessions held at ITC. High level of nucleotide diversity and presence of more than two types of ITS sequences in eight wild diploids pointed to their origin by hybridization of different genotypes. This study significantly expands the number of wild Musa species where nuclear genome size and genomic distribution of rDNA loci is known.

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SSR genotyping identified Musa species that are closely related to the previously characterized accessions and provided data to aid in their classification. Sequence analysis of ITS region. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors.

Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed.

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Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure.

Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body.